- Abdominal pain
- Rectal bleeding
- Weight loss
- Signs of malnutrition11
The differentiation between the two conditions may be difficult based on symptoms alone.
Complications of UC can include anaemia and pus production in the GI tract.2
Other complications of UC may include perforated bowel and toxic megacolon,12 which is an acute, non-obstructive dilation of the colon.
Both UC and CD can increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC):12
- The risk is related to the duration of the disease (CRC rarely occurs before 8–10 years duration of IBD)
- Risk is also linked to the extent (i.e. the length of the colon involved) and the severity of the disease
Several factors may contribute to the risk of developing UC, including:14
Ethnicity: High risk in Caucasians, and notably people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish descent
Genetics: Family history – 5–20% of patients have a first-degree relative with IBD12
Habitat: Those living in urban areas and industrial nations may be more likely to develop UC or CD than those in more rural areas
May be performed to check for anaemia, which may indicate bleeding in the intestines. Blood tests may also uncover a high white blood cell count, which is a sign of inflammation somewhere in the body.7, 8
By testing a stool (faecal) sample, clinicians can tell if there is bleeding or infection in the intestines. Stool tests are commonly done to rule out other diseases of the GI tract, such as cancer.7, 8
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy
These tests are performed using a long, flexible tube that has a small video camera on the end. A doctor can carefully examine the rectum and colon for inflammation, bleeding, or ulcers, or may perform a biopsy. The tissue taken during a biopsy can be analysed microscopically to confirm a diagnosis.7, 8
The management of IBD may involve medications, surgery, and nutritional support.
- Aminosalicylates or 5-ASA (e.g. mesalazine) that reduce gut inflammation
- Antidiarrhoeal agents (e.g. loperamide) that provide symptomatic relief
- Antibiotics (e.g. ampicillin) that treat and prevent bacterial infections in the gut
- Biologic therapies (e.g. infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab or vedolizumab) that reduce gut inflammation
- Steroids (e.g. prednisolone) that reduce gut inflammation
- Immunomodulators (e.g. azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine methotrexate) that dampen the body’s immune responses that contribute to inflammation in the gut
Surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms when people do not respond to medications or if complications occur. Removal of specific sections of the small intestine, colon or rectum may be necessary.7,8
Diet and Nutrition
If you have been prescribed Entyvio ▼ and get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.
This includes any possible side effects not listed within this website or in the Patient Information Leaflet for Entyvio.
This medicine is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. You can help by reporting any side effects you may get. See https://yellowcard.mhra.gov.uk/ for how to report side effects.